SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Question 1, T1 2022 Page 1 of 13 Hydrology and Hydraulics(SEV322)…

SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Question 1, T1 2022 Page 1 of 13 Hydrology and Hydraulics(SEV322)…
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 1 of 13
Hydrology and Hydraulics(SEV322)
T1 2022
Assignment 1– Hydraulics
(Weight = 30%)
Due:
Week 6, 8:00 PM (AEST)
Sunday 17 April 2022,
Via CloudDeakin
This is an individual assessment task.
Plagiarism and collusion is unacceptable practice at Deakin University.
Where applicable, you must appropriately reference your work. Failure to
do so will result in disciplinary action. For more information on plagiarism
and collusion please see the CloudDeakin website.
All submissions must be typed, not handwritten, and must be recognisable
to Turnitin. Submissions that cannot be assessed by Turnitin will not be
awarded a mark.
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 2 of 13
LearningOutcomes
This assessment task has been devised to allow students to demonstrate progress towards
achieving the following Unit Learning Outcomes and Deakin Graduate Learning Outcomes:
At the completion of this Unit, you will be able to:
ULO 3 Describe the hydraulic behaviours observed in open channel flow.
ULO 4 Identify, define and use hydraulic properties of flow in open channels
when design canals, sluice gates, energy dissipating structures.
ULO 5
Apply hydrology and hydraulic principles to real world civil engineering
problems such as storm water management and design and analysis of
open channels.
GLO 1
Discipline
knowledge and
capabilities
Demonstrate discipline knowledge and capabilities appropriate to the
level of study.
This will be assessed through the student’s ability to show an
understanding of hydraulic principles in open channel flow and
structures.
GLO 4
Critical thinking
Evaluate information using critical and analytical thinking and
judgment.
This will be assessed through the student’s ability to investigate and
correctly evaluate practical problems in open channel flow.
GLO 5
Problem solving
Create solutions to authentic (real world and ill-defined) problems.
This will be assessed through the student’s ability to apply hydraulic
principles to solve commonly encountered problems in open channel
flow.
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 3 of 13
Background of the Problem
You are working in a water engineering consulting company as a graduate civil engineer.
Your company has just won a contract from Torrents River Irrigation Trust to design an
open channel to deliver water from Redfish Reservoir to Bigpond Dam, from where the
water will be distributed for irrigation purpose.
The conceptual design has been developed by senior engineers and illustrated in Table 1
and Figures 1 and 2. The first reach of the channel will be a rectangular concrete (gunite)
channel with a total length of 300 m, a width of 2.0 m and a depth of 2.5 m. The first 100 m
of the rectangular concrete channel will be horizontal, then the bed slope will change to 1-
in-500 (0.2%). At the upstream end of the first rectangular reach, a sluice gate will be built
for flow control.
The second reach will be a circular channel made from reinforced concrete pipes (RCP). The
diameter will be 2.0 m, the length will be 200 m and the slope will be 1-in-500 (0.2%). It will
be buried underground since there is a small hill to get across.
The third reach will be a trapezoidal earth channel (straight and uniform in each section)
with a total length of 2 km, a bottom width of 1.0 m, a side slope of 1.5-horizontal to 1-
vertical (1.5H:1V), and a depth of 2.0 m. The first 1 km of the second reach will have a
slope of 1-in-500 (0.2%), then it will change to 1-in-100 (1%) for 200 m, and finally will
change back to 1-in-500 (0.2%) for the rest 800 m.
The fourth and final reach will be a rectangular earth channel (straight and uniform) with a
total length of 500 m, a width of 2.0 m, a depth of 2.5 m, and a bed slope of 1-in-200
(0.5%).
You are tasked to solve a number of specific engineering problems for the design. Critical
steps of the calculations should be documented such that your results can be double
checked by your colleagues.
Table 1 Proposed design of the irrigation channel
Start
Chainage
(m)
End
Chainage
(m)
Channel
Material
Channel
Geometry
Bed
Slope
S0
Bottom
Width b
(m)
Depth D
(m) Side Slope
m (H:V)
Diameter
(m)
0 100 Gunite Rectangular 0 2.0 2.5 0 N/A
100 300 Gunite Rectangular 0.001 2.0 2.5 0 N/A
300 500 RCP Circular 0.002 N/A N/A N/A 2.0
500 1500 Earth Trapezoidal 0.002 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A
1500 1700 Earth Trapezoidal 0.01 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A
1700 2500 Earth Trapezoidal 0.002 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A
2500 3000 Earth Rectangular 0.005 2.0 2.5 0 N/A
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 4 of 13
Figure 1. Schematic of the irrigation channel system (top view).
Torrents River
Redfish
Reservoir
Bigpond
Dam
Sluice gate
1st Reach: Rectangular
concrete (gunite)
channel
3rd Reach: Trapezoidal
earth channel 4th Reach: Rectangular
earth channel
Direct connection
(freefall)
2nd Reach: Circular
RCP channel
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 5 of 13
Figure 2. Schematic of the irrigation channel system (side view).
1st Reach:
Rectangular
concrete
(gunite)
channel
Redfish
Reservoir
Chainage
(m) 500 Bigpond
Dam 0 100 1500 1700 2500 3000
3
rd
Reach:
Trapezoidal earth
channel
4
th
Reach: Rectangular
earth channel
H1
H2
300
2nd Reach:
Circular
RCP
channel
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 6 of 13
Q1
You are tasked to provide information to the client on how the opening of the sluice gate
should be set to achieve the designed flow in the channel during normal conditions and
prevent flooding during storm events.
The sluice gate used in the rectangular concrete channel has a width same to that of the
channel, as shown in Figure Q1. The sluice gate is installed close to the reservoir outlet. The
maximum depth of the channel bank upstream of the sluice gate is 3.5 m and that
downstream of the gate is 2.5 m. Under the normal reservoir operation condition, water
surface level in the Redfish reservoir is 2.0 m higher than the bottom of the channel (i.e. y1 =
2.0 m). During storm events, the reservoir level can be up to 3.0 m above the bottom of the
channel (i.e. y1 = 3.0). It is known that the energy loss when water passing through the sluice
gate is 10% of the velocity head of the flow just underneath the gate (cross-section 3). A
designed flow rate of 3.0 m3/s is to be achieved in the channel under normal reservoir
operation conditions. Frictional loss due to wall sheer stress can be neglected due to the
short distance considered in this scenario.
To be able to achieve a well justified recommendation, you take the following steps:
(i) Establish an energy equation between a point at the surface of the reservoir and
the point just below the sluice gate. Determine the opening height of the sluice
gate y3 that would result in the designed flow rate under the normal reservoir
operation condition. If multiple solutions are obtained, determine which one
should be adopted. (6 marks)
(ii) Based on the results from part (i) and taken into consideration of practical
constrains, the tentative sluice gate opening y3 is determined as 0.25 m. Under
the normal operation condition, y1 is 2 m and less than the channel bank depth
downstream of the sluice gate, such that there is no flooding risk. Considering
that the reservoir level would be higher (y1 = 3 m) during storm events, you want
to estimate the flow condition downstream of the sluice gate for the maximum
depth scenario. Based on the information obtained so far, determine the flow
rate, velocity, Froude number and flow regime for the flow through the sluice
gate under the maximum reservoir depth scenario. (9 marks)
(iii) Based on the information obtained, for relative reservoir level y1 = 3.0 m and the
sluice gate opening y3 = 0.25 m, determine whether a hydraulic jump is likely to
occur downstream of the sluice gate. If so, estimate the depth of flow
downstream of the jump and the associated energy loss. (10 marks)
(6 + 9 + 10 = 25 marks)
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 7 of 13
Figure Q1 Side view of the sluice gate used for flow control
y1
1 y3 2
Possible
hydraulic jump
y4
4
Reservoir
Rectangular
channel y2
3
Top of channel
bank
Top of channel
bank
3.5 m
2.5 m
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 8 of 13
Q2
The client wants to know the maximum flow capacity and the corresponding flow condition
of the channel system (in particular, normal depth and critical depth). This would be useful
for developing flood mitigation plans. The ageing of the channel should be considered since
it delivers raw water and ageing can occur not long after the commission. For the circular
channel, as per the convention, the design maximum flow is the full pipe flow without
pressurisation. For other types of channels, a minimum freeboard of 0.3 m is required (i.e.
the distance between the surface of the water and the top of the channel bank needs to be
0.3 m or more). The velocity should not be greater than 3.0 m/s under the maximum
design flow.
To determine the maximum flow capacity of the channel system under aged condition, you
take the following steps:
(i) Find the suitable design values of the Manning’s coefficient n for each section of the
channel from credible references. Clearly specify how you find the information such
that your colleague or the client can check if needed. Justify the values selected. (5
marks)
(ii) Using the Manning’s equation, determine the maximum allowable normal flow rate
and corresponding velocity for each individual channel section (except for the first
horizontal section). Demonstrate the calculation and tabulate the results for all the
channel sections. If the velocity is higher than the allowable maximum of 3 m/s,
make adjustment to the maximum normal flow accordingly. Summarise results in
Table Q2-1. (8 marks)
(iii) Based on the maximum allowable normal flow for individual sections as determined
in part (ii), determine the maximum allowable flow for the whole channel system,
and explain it to the client. (2 marks)
(iv) Based on information obtained previously and other practical considerations, the
client would like to set the maximum allowable flow for the whole channel system
as 4.80 m3/s. Based on this value, determine the corresponding normal depths and
critical depths for all the relevant channel sections. Demonstrate the calculation
and tabulate the results for all the channel sections using Tabel Q2-2. (6 marks)
(v) Make a schematic of the side view of the channel (use Figure 2). Based on the
normal depth and critical depth results obtained in part (iv), draw the normal depth
line (NDL) and the critical depth line (CDL), respectively. Label the values of NDL and
CDL. (4 marks)
(5 + 8 + 2 + 6 + 4 = 25 marks)
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 9 of 13
Table A2-1 Maximum normal flow and velocity for each individual section along the channel
Start
Chainage
(m)
End
Chainage
(m)
Channel
Material
Channel
Geometry
Bed
Slope
S0
Bottom
Width
b (m)
Depth
D (m)
Side
Slope m
(H:V)
Diameter
(m)
Manning’s
n (s/m3)
Max
Normal
Flow depth
y0 (m)
Max
Normal
Flow
Q (m3
/s)
Max Normal
Flow Velocity
V (m/s)
0 100 Gunite Rectangular 0 2.0 2.5 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A
100 300 Gunite Rectangular 0.001 2.0 2.5 0 N/A 2.2
300 500 RCP Circular 0.002 N/A N/A N/A 2.0 2.0
500 1500 Earth Trapezoidal 0.002 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A 1.7
1500 1700 Earth Trapezoidal 0.01 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A 1.7
1700 2500 Earth Trapezoidal 0.002 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A 1.7
2500 3000 Earth Rectangular 0.005 2.0 2.5 0 N/A 2.2
Table A2-2 Maximum allowable flow and corresponding normal depth and critical depth for the channel system
Start
Chainage
(m)
End
Chainage
(m)
Channel
Material
Channel
Geometry
Bed
Slope
S0
Bottom
Width
b (m)
Depth
D (m) Side
Slope m
(H:V)
Diameter
(m) Manning’s
n (s/m3)
Max
Allowable
Flow
Q (m3
/s)
Normal
Flow
depth y0
(m)
Critical
Depth
yc (m)
0 100 Gunite Rectangular 0 2.0 2.5 0 N/A 4.8 N/A
100 300 Gunite Rectangular 0.001 2.0 2.5 0 N/A 4.8
300 500 RCP Circular 0.002 N/A N/A N/A 2.0 4.8
500 1500 Earth Trapezoidal 0.002 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A 4.8
1500 1700 Earth Trapezoidal 0.01 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A 4.8
1700 2500 Earth Trapezoidal 0.002 1.0 2.0 1.5 N/A 4.8
2500 3000 Earth Rectangular 0.005 2.0 2.5 0 N/A 4.8
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 10 of 13
Q3
The flow surface profile is important since rapidly varied and gradually varied flows are
expected to co-exist with normal flow. You are asked to visualise the possible flow surface
profile for the whole channel. It is known that under typical operation condition, the water
surface in Bigpond Dam is about 0.5 m above the invert level of the channel end (i.e. H2 =
0.5 m, Figure 2).
(i) Based on the Normal Depth Line (NDL) and Critical Depth Line (CDL) for the channel
at the maximum allowable flow condition as you determined in Q2 (iv), create a
separate drawing for the whole channel and sketch the possible flow surface profile
when considering the surface level in Bigpond Dam is H2 = 0.5 m. Show the control
points. Label the type of gradually varied flow surface profiles involved (M1, M2, S1
etc.; no detailed calculation needed). (10 marks)
The rectangular earth channel that links to the Bigpond Dam requires some further
analysis. Since the dam only has a relatively small capacity, the water level in the dam can
increase significantly after a storm event. The maximum possible surface level of the
Bigpond Dam is H2 = 2.0 m, i.e. 2.0 m above the invert level of the channel end, as
illustrated in Figure Q3. It is important to understand how this high water level at the Dam
will impact the water level upstream.
Figure Q3 schematic of the channel section connecting to Smallpond Dam.
To obtain all the details for the scenario H2 = 2.0 m, you take the following steps
(ii) Determine, with appropriate calculations and justifications, the type of flow surface
profile for the rectangular earth channel upstream of the Bigpond Dam (chainage
2500 to 3000 m). (5 marks)
(iii) Determine the detailed flow surface profile from end of the channel (where water
depth is 2.0 m) to the upstream cross-section where the depth of water is the normal
depth, or to the interface between the trapezoidal and the rectangular channels (i.e.
chainage 2500 m) if the normal depth cannot be achieved. Use the step method with
a step interval ????? = 0.20 m. Demonstrate the key calculation steps, fill in Table Q3,
and sketch the flow surface profile. (10 marks)
(10 + 5 + 10 = 25 marks)
Bigpond
3000 Dam
H2
Chainage (m) 2500
S0 = 0.005
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 11 of 13
Hints:
1. Identify the control points (cross-sections) to help determine the surface profile.
Subcritical flow has control at the downstream; supercritical flow has the control at the
upstream.
2. When calculating the detailed surface profile using the step method, keep at least four
significant figures in your calculation to avoid significant rounding error.
3. In the step method calculation, the final step will finish at the normal depth or at the
upstream end of the rectangular earth cannel, so the step size of the final step doesn’t have
to be 0.2 m.
4. Depending on the normal depth you calculated previously, after calculating the gradually
varied flow surface profile, you will see whether the normal flow would present or not. One
approach is that you decrease y step by step until reaching the normal depth and calculate
the distance ?x. If the distance is more than the overall length of the channel section, it
means the calculated surface profile beyond the length of the section will not be able to
realise.
Table Q3 Results of step method calculations for the flow surface profile
y (m) A (m2
) R (m)
V
(m/s) E (m) Sf Sf_ave
?E
(m)
S0 –
Sf_ave
?x
(m)
?x
(m)
2.00
1.80
1.60

Normal depth
Or the depth at
the upstream
end of the
rectangular
channel
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 12 of 13
Q4
Although the upstream sluice gate can control how much water flowing into the channel
from the Redfish Reservoir, the flow can increase due to runoff from surrounding
catchment, or decrease due to evaporation, seepage or even water theft. The client
Torrents River Irrigation Trust asks to have a flow measurement structure designed in the
last reach of the channel (the rectangular earth channel). You propose that a smooth hump
can be built and used as a low-cost critical-depth flow meter, as shown in Figure Q4. The
client likes your idea and asks you for details of the design.
It is estimated that the energy loss at the transition (when flowing from the original
channel to the top of the hump) HL,hump is R% of the velocity head on top of the hump,
where R is calculated by the last two digits of your student ID and the following formula
R = (+50)/10where+50)/10where represents the last two digits of your student ID. For example, if your student ID
ends with 57, then R = (57+50)/10 = 10.7.
Due to the short length of the hump and the relatively mild channel slope, the elevation
difference caused by the slope of the channel can be neglected when analysing the hump
(i.e. assume the channel is effectively horizontal for the short section around the hump). To
obtain the details of the design, you take the following steps.
(i) Assuming that the designed critical-depth flow meter can measure flow up to 5.0
m3/s, determine the normal depth, critical depth and flow regime (subcritical or
supercritical) in the original rectangular channel for flow ranging from 1.0 m3/s to
5.0 m3/s with an interval of 0.5 m3
/s. Tabulate the results using Table Q4. (10
marks)
(ii) Determine the minimum height of the hump ???????? that would result in critical flow on
top of the hump for the designed maximum measurable flow (i.e. 5.0 m3/s). (10
marks)
(iii) Based on the information obtained from previous steps, and considering practical
constrains, the height of the critical-depth flow meter (hump) is decided to be 0.6
m. The channel may subject to flooding and therefore higher flow than the
designed maximum measurable flow. Calculate the new upstream depth y1, new
when the flow rate is 8.0 m3/s, and check if it is still in the safe range (i.e.
considering the requirement of at least 0.3 m freeboard). (5 marks)
(10 + 10 + 5 = 25 marks)
SEV322 Hydrology and Hydraulics Assignment 1, T1 2022
Page 13 of 13
Figure Q4 Schematic (side view) of the proposed critical-depth flow meter
Table Q4 Normal depths and critical depths for various flows
Flow Rate
(m3/s)
Normal Depth
(m)
Critical Depth
(m)
Flow Regime
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
End of Assignment 1
y1 or
y1, new
y2
z
Attachments: SEV322-Assign….pdfApr 26 2022 04:09 PM

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